Google warns of ‌ISP-controlled Hermit spyware

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Google’s Threat Analysis Group (TAG) has identified a new spyware campaign targeting Android and iOS users in Italy and Kazakhstan for data theft.

The alleged maker of the spyware is RCS Labs, an Italy-based commercial spyware vendor.

Earlier this month, security researchers at Lookout found evidence linking the vendor to Hermit, a spyware program that was first released by Italian authorities in 2019 as a corruption countermeasure.

According to Lookout, RCS Labs is an NSO Group-like entity. The firm claims to provide "lawful intercept" services to government agencies.

Reports indicate Hermit can infect both Android and iOS devices. Google’s researchers have also recorded instances where malicious actors collaborated with internet service providers (ISPs) to disable their targets’ data connection.

Targets subsequently received an SMS message with a prompt to download an application to restore their internet connection. In instances without ISP involvement, the spyware was masqueraded as legitimate-looking messaging apps like WhatsApp or Instagram. An added danger of Hermit is that it can download modules from the command-and-control server, giving it additional capabilities.

Hermit never made its way to the Play or App stores, according to Google. The company discovered evidence, however, that bad actors were able to deploy the spyware on iOS devices by enrolling in Apple's Developer Enterprise Program.


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“This campaign is a good reminder that attackers do not always use exploits to achieve the permissions they need. Basic infection vectors and drive-by downloads still work and can be very efficient with the help from local ISPs,” stated Google in a blog post.

“To protect our users, we have warned all Android victims, implemented changes in Google Play Protect and disabled Firebase projects used as C2 in this campaign.”