What is data processing?

Finding the data you need - either to digest or delete - isn't always easy in an increasingly data-intensive world

Man processes data at desk

Most organisations will process data in some form, but what does the term 'data processing' mean? In essence, it is the collection and manipulation of data to produce new relevant information.

It can also include the collection, recording, organisation, structuring, storage, adaptation or alteration, retrieval, consultation, use, disclosure by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available, alignment or combination, restriction, erasure or destruction of personal data.

Any changes to data can be considered data processing. Raw data isn't in the right state for reporting, analytics, business intelligence, machine learning, so it needs to be aggregated, enriched, transformed, filtered, and cleaned. 

Data processing certainly isn't a novel concept, but near-constant technology and software updates could leave anyone's head spinning. More technology means more data, which makes data processing even more important. Read on to see why data processing should matter to you and your business.

GDPR definition of data processing

Since GDPR came into force in May 2018, there's an important definition of data processing.

According to Article 4.2 of the EU's GDPR, processing means "any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person ('data subject'); an identifiable natural person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that natural person".

The stages of data processing

Data processing comprises a number of steps that are pretty uniform, however much data you're hoping to process or what you're doing with it.

Data collection: Before any processing takes place, the data needs to be collected. Many data collection methods rely on automatic harvesting, but some will be more overt and rely on interactions with data subjects. Whatever means is used to collect the data, it's essential that it is stored in a format and order that is appropriate to the needs of the business, and that can be easily sourced for processing.

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Preparation: Once the data is collected, preliminary work is required to prepare the data for in-depth analysis. For example, this may require a business to only select the data that is required for a particular task, and discarding anything that is incomplete or irrelevant. This typically drastically reduces the time needed to fully process the data, and reduces the likelihood of errors further down the line.

Input: Now that the data has been prepared, what survived the initial filter will be converted into a machine-readable format, one that is supported by the software that will analyse it. The conversion at this stage can be incredibly time-consuming, as the entire data set will need to be double-checked for errors as it is submitted. Any missing or corrupted data at this stage can nullify the results.

Processing: Once submitted, the data is analysed by prebuilt algorithms that manipulate it into a more meaningful format, one that businesses can start to glean information from.

Output: The resulting information can then be manipulated once more into a format suitable for end-users, such as graphs, charts, reports, video and audio, whichever is most suitable for the task. This simplifies the processed data so that businesses can use it to inform their decisions.

Storage: The final stage involves safely storing the data and metadata (data about data) for further use. It should be possible to quickly access stored data as and when required. It's important that all stored data is kept secure to ensure its integrity.

While each stage is compulsory, the processing element is cyclical, meaning that the output and stage steps can lead to a repeat of the data collection step, starting a new cycle of data processing.

The future of data processing

2D clouds on a circuitboard background

So what does the future hold for data processing? The answer is dependent on the current needs of businesses and, at the moment, it looks like it is tied to the final step of the process, which is storing the data.

This is due to the ever-increasing quantities of data which needs to be processed and stored as time moves on. Businesses and individuals now produce more data than ever before and there are no signs of the trend slowing down anytime soon. Traditional forms of data processing are no longer able to keep up with the vast quantities of produced data, that is why the next vital step for the majority of businesses lies in the cloud.

Firstly, the cloud provides almost limitless storage options, which is the ideal answer to the constantly growing production of data. Secondly, it’s perfectly suited to the COVID, and the post-COVID world, having been a major driver of the mass shift to remote working that enabled many businesses to minimise the disruption caused by the closure of offices.

However, cloud storage isn’t the only significant new part of data processing. Due to the shift to remote working, businesses have discovered a new need for improved security measures, which is especially important when it comes to handling sensitive data. A recent example of this is Google Cloud expanding its confidential computing portfolio, which allows companies to process sensitive data while keeping it encrypted in memory. The move aims to capitalise on a growing interest in confidential computing, a field that promises to revolutionise cloud computing by providing what is in effect permanent uptime on data encryption.

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